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The Messenger of Allah said: “Every Ummah (nation) has a test to undergo, my Ummah (nation) will be tried through wealth.” [at-Tirmidhee no: 481]
The Qur’aan narrates a parable of a virtuous man, whom Allah had granted abundance in wealth. He owned a valuable garden; after deducing the household and agricultural expenses from his income, he would spend the remaining money in charity. When he died, his sons considered their father to be a simpleton for giving away such large amount of money in charity and thus decided to hold back the entire profit. When the garden was ready to be harvested, they planned to secretly carry all the produce to their homes without anybody knowing. The next day, as they approached the garden, they were astonished to see the fresh and blooming garden completely laid waste and it was only their garden which was in ruins!! “They said: ‘Alas for us! We have indeed transgressed!” [Soorah al-Qalam (68): 31] and Allah declares: “Such is the punishment (in this life); but greater is the punishment in the Hereafter!” [Soorah al-Qalam (68): 33]
Similarly, many people ruin their faith and fidelity merely due to the greed of wealth. This love of wealth creates in man evil instincts, miserliness, selfishness and arrogance, which in turn involve him in sins, falsehood, deceit, cruelty and robbery. This causes disorder and destruction in the world and the Hereafter is lost too!!
The concept of Zakaah is to decrease the love of wealth and inculcate justice, generosity, brotherhood, affection and sacrifice among the Muslims and thus Allah says: “By no means shall you attain righteousness (and reward) unless you spend of that which you love.” [Soorah al-Imraan (3): 92]
In other words, he who refuses to pay the Zakaat holds feeble faith and has not accepted Islam with full sincerity. Therefore, during his caliphate, Abu Bakr (radhi allahu anhu) declared war against those who refused to pay Zakaat, although they believed in the Oneness of Allah, performed the Salaah and observed fasts.
Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) reported that on the death of Allah’s Messenger , when Abu Bakr became the Caliph, some Arabs became apostates and refused to pay Zakaat. Umar (radhi allahu anhu) said: “How can you wage a holy war against them when the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) had declared that he would fight until they acknowledge Ã¢â‚¬ËœLa Ilaha illa AllahÃ¢â‚¬Â Abu Bakr (radhi allahu anhu) said: “By Allah, whoever makes a distinction between Prayer and Zakaat, I will fight against him. If you own wealth, you owe Zakaat. Even if they withhold a lamb which they were giving in Zakaat to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) I will fight.Ã¢â‚¬Â Umar (radhi allahu anhu) remarked: ‘Allah has given Abu Bakr true insight and I instantly realized that he was right.’ [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol: 2, no: 483)]
The Messenger of Allah said: “By spending in charity, the wealth does not decrease; one who forgives, receives more honor from Allah and he who adapts humility rises higher in position.” [Saheeh Muslim (vol: 4, no: 6264)]
When this economic order was found inadequate, a new doctrine called Ã¢â‚¬Ëœcommunism’ was introduced under the guise of equality and justice. In this system, the government holds exclusive rights to own all the resources of the country, land property, factories and all the produce, while the individual is deprived of it all. Practically, the life of servitude is slapped on him, while everything is controlled by a handful of people who exercise absolute authority over both man and matters.
Both these systems carried oppression and exploitation to the extreme limit. People discarded these unjust systems in a very short time, even in Russia, where communism had a strong hold, dissidents raised the banner of revolt. Thus, experience shows that man-made laws have never been infallible and have always lead mankind to downfall and destruction.
Unlike capitalism and socialism, the economic order of Islam rests on the principle that the Universe and everything therein belongs to Allah, the All Mighty. He is the real Owner of all kinds of wealth and all its sources. Therefore, we read in the Qur’aan:“Give them something yourselves out of the means which Allah has given you.” [Soorah an-Noor (24): 33]
Thus, man is merely a trustee and it is binding on him to utilize and spend all the wealth given to him by Allah as He commands.
Allah has set limits in matter of earning and spending wealth. He has forbidden the income which arises from bribery and extortion [(2): 188], breach of trust [(3): 61], making and selling of idols, gambling, wine, divination of arrows [(5): 90], theft [(5): 38], fraudulent dealings on weights and measures [(83): 2-3], depriving the orphan of his property [(4): 2-3], spreading of obscene matters [(24): 19], prostitution [(24): 33] and dealings of interest (Usury) [(2): 278].
While the Muslim law strictly controls individual conduct, both in private and in public life, it does not place any restraint on the personal ownership of property. Any person could own millions; there would be no objection on his acquiring such wealth, provided the means are lawful.
In light of the above, one can confidently say that Islam safeguards the economic status of an individual, and all abominable acts of surpassing of rights and looting of wealth are barred in Islam. Allah has provided mankind the ultimate solution to all money crises –“Zakaat“ – He has prohibited the hoarding of wealth and has secured the rights of the poor.
Ibn Umar and Aa’ishah (radhi allahu anhum) both transmitted that the Messenger of Allah [(saheeh) Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majah lil Albanee (vol: 1, no: 1448)]used to take Zakaat at the rate of half Deenar on 20 Deenar or more and one Deenar on forty Deenars, i.e. 2.5% or the fortieth part.
Ali (radhi allahu anhu) said: “You will have to pay a fortieth part of silver as Zakaat, i.e. the rate of one Dirham on every forty Dirhams (2.5%).”[(saheeh) Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee in Saheeh Sunan Abu Dawood Lil al-Albanee (vol: 1, no: 1390)]
NOTE: It is incorrect to combine the quantity of gold with the quantity of silver and value them for Zakaat.
Money: Currency is interchangeable with gold and silver. To find out the changeability of Zakaat on money, the amount should be compared with the price of 87 grams of gold or 612 grams of silver (whichever is lower) and if the conditions of Zakaat are liable then 2.5% of the money has to be given as Zakaat.
Zakaat has to be calculated with reference to the trading stock together with the profit at the end of the year. It should be calculated as explained earlier in the case of money. The value of the goods at the close of the year is to calculated, whether it exceeds 87 grams of gold or 612 grams of silver. Goods like buildings, furniture or transport means used in trading are excluded in calculating Zakaat.
Aariyat trees are such fruit-bearing trees which a rich man may temporarily give at the disposal of a poor man to obtain benefit from.
Jabah refers to a horse or even a donkey GOLD and SILVER