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Conditions for the payment of Zakaat
Every Muslim man or woman, major or minor *, sane or insane * who is a free citizen and holds total wealth exceeding the prescribed minimum limit for one full year is obliged to pay Zakaat from his lawful earnings.
Saheb al-Nisaab: (complete possession of the wealth): Saheb al-Nisaab means that complete wealth should be held by one particular person. The wealth should be free from the rights of other people and the owner enjoys full right to dispose and use his wealth as he wills, since Allah says: “Take from their wealth a Sadaqah Ã¢â‚¬Â¦” [(9): 103]
Completion of One full year: Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhu) explains that Zakaat is payable on property (in nature of wealth) which has remained in the hands of the person for one full year from the time it was acquired by him.Ã¢â‚¬Â [(saheeh) Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee in Sunan at-Tirmidhee (vol: 2, no: 515)]
Allah is only pleased with the Zakaat which is paid from lawful earnings:
Usama bin Umar (radhi allahu anhu) transmits from his father who said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) saying:”Prayers without cleanliness are not accepted by Allah, similarly any charity from ill-gotten wealth is not accepted.” [(saheeh) – Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee Saheeh Sunan an-Nisa’ee (vol: 2, no: 2364)]
* The Zakaat on behalf of minor or insane will be paid out of his wealth by the guardian.
People entitled to take Zakaat
Fuqarah and al-Masakeen:
Fuqarah are those poor people who do not beg. They may have money but not sufficient for their basic needs.
Masaakeen are those people who beg because they do not have food and clothing or may have something for their basic needs. Abdullah Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) refers to a long communication to Mu’adh ton his way to Yemen, wherein he mentions that Allah has made Zakaat compulsory, it has to be extracted from the rich and given to the poor. [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol: 2, no: 271) and Saheeh Muslim]
Those employed to collect (the funds): Ibn Sa’eed (radhi allahu anhu) states that he was appointed recovery officer by Umar (radhi allahu anhu) and after doing his job, when he went to hand over the recoveries, Umar (radhi allahu anhu) issued orders that he be compensated for his services. Ibn Sa’eed (radhi allahu anhu) said he had done the job for the cause of Allah and he would be rewarded for it by Allah.Umar (radhi allahu anhu) said: “You may take what you are given. I too had done this job and was awarded compensation by the Messenger of Allah r. Like you I was hesitant but the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) advised me to accept what is given unsolicited and to eat it and also spend in charity.” [Authenticated by Shaikh Albanee – Sunan Abu Dawood (2/1643)]
Debtors, who cannot pay their debts:
Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (radhi allahu anhu) relates that a trader of fruits suffered immense loss due to damage on his fruits and he became heavily indebted. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Spend charity on him” The people came forward with their offerings, yet the debts could not be rendered in full. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) urged the creditors to take whatever was given to them and write off the balance. [Saheeh Muslim]
To attract the hearts of those are inclined towards Islam)
Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (radhi allahu anhu) said: “Ali sent some freshly mined gold particles which were not yet sifted from earth to the Messenger of Allah r. He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) distributed it among four people from the tribes of Bani Kilaa and Bani Nabham. The people of Quraysh felt hurt at this and complained that they were being ignored, while the chiefs of Najed were favored at their expense. Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) indicated that this was done so as to generate feelings of affection and attachment in the hearts of the people of Najed. [Saheeh Muslim 2/ 2318] This category also includes spending Zakaat in order to ward off the evil and harm from the Muslims.
To Free the captives:
Baraa (radhi allahu anhu) states that a man came to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) and asked to be guided on such a course which should bring him nearer to Paradise and take him and take him away from Hell. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) told him to set free a life and liberate a slave. The distinction between the two objects was too delicate to discover and the person wondered whether both were one and the same thing. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “No, one is to set free on your own; i.e. exclusively and other is to help liberate a man, i.e. collaborate with others in getting the man freed.” [(Hasan) – Musnad Ahmad]
For Allah’s Cause (i.e. for those who fight in holy battles)
Ata bin Yasar (radhi allahu anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “A rich person does not deserve to be given out of Zakaat funds except in the five cases:
(a) one who is fighting or striving in the Cause of Allah (Jihaad),
(b) one who is administering Zakaat funds,
(c) one who is afflicted by damages,
(d) one who wants to buy from a poor man certain things which has been given him as Zakaat and
(e) an indigent who receives something by way of Zakaat; that neighbor, although a rich person, is allowed to accept a gift the offering made by his poor neighbor.”
[Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee in Saheeh Sunan Abu Dawood (1/1440)]
In the above Hadeeth, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) clearly states that anything given to a poor man by way of Zakaat can be bought by a rich person (other than one who gave it in Zakaat) and after giving something in Zakaat, one is free to receive the same as a gift.
Striving in the cause of Allah includes all those works, which propagate and spread the knowledge of Deen, for e.g; establishing and running religious schools, publication of religious books and the distribution etc
The wayfarers: (A traveler who is cut from everything): The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “It is not lawful to give Zakaat to a rich person, but there is an exception for three persons, one who is engrossed in the cause of Allah, second a wayfarer stranded on the way and third an indigent ma second a wayfarer stranded on the way and third an indigent making offering or entertaining to feast rich person out of Zakaat receive by him.Ã¢â‚¬Â [(Hasan) Sunan Abu Dawood 2/1633]
Non – Payment of Zakaat…
Along with the blessings and bounties attached to the payment of Zakaat, it is worthwhile mentioning the ill-effects of its non-payment.
Destruction of Wealth: The Messenger of Allah mentioned that the wealth of those who do not pay the Zakaat is eventually destroyed. [Tabaranee]. In another narration, he said: “Those who neglect and do not pay Zakaat will suffer calamities like famine.”[(hasan) by Shaikh al-Albanee in Targheeb wa Tarheeb]
and: “Whenever people restrain from paying the Zakaat due on their wealth, they will be deprived of rain. If it were not for the sake of their cattle they would not receive rain.” [Ibn Majah and al-Haakim]
Severe Punishment in the Hereafter: Apart from the misery and ruins faced in the world, those negligent of Zakaat will be severely punished in the Hereafter, Allah says: “Those who hoard up gold and silver (Kanz: the money, the Zakaat of which has not been paid), and spend not in the Way of Allah, – announce unto them a painful torment. On the day when that (Kanz) will be heated in the Fire of Hell and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks and their backs (and it will said unto them): – “This is the treasure which you hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what you used to hoard.” [Soorah al-Tawbah (9): 34-35]
The Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever is made wealthy by Allah and does not pay the Zakaat of his wealth, then on the Day of Resurrection his wealth will be made like a baldheaded poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes. The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and say, ‘I am your wealth, I am your treasure.” Then he recited: “Let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allah has bestowed on them of His Bounty (wealth) think that it is good for them (and thus they do not pay the obligatory Zakaat). Nay, it will be worse for them; the things which they conversely withheld shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection.“ [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol: 2 no: 486)]
And in a long Hadeeth: “Ã¢â‚¬Â¦If any owner of the cattle and sheep does not pay what is due on them, when the Day of Resurrection comes, a soft sandy plain will be spread for them. He will find none of them missing, with twisted horns, without horns or with a broken horn, and they will stab him with their horns and crush him with their hoofs. As often as the first of them passes him the last of them will be made to return to him for a day, the extent of which will be fifty thousand years, until judgment is pronounced upon the servants. And he would be shown his Path leading him to Paradise or to Hell.” [Saheeh Muslim (no: 2161)]
People not entitled to take Zakaat:
The descendants of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) :
Anas (radhi allahu anhu) stated: “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) passed by a date on a way and remarked: ‘But for the apprehension that this date might be charity, I would have eaten it.’ [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol: 3, no: 363) and Saheeh Muslim]
Abu Hurayarah (radhi allahu anhu) relates that Hasan bin Ali (radhi allahu anhu) as a child once picked up a date and put it in his mouth. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) noticed this and said: “Spit it out, give it up. Do not you know that it is not befitting to take anything out of charity.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol: 2, no: 568) and Saheeh Muslim]
Abdul Mutallib bin Rabah (radhi allahu anhu) says: “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) called charities and alms as dirt which people discard and it is not acceptable for Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) or Muhammad’s descendants.” [Saheeh Muslim (vol: 2, no: 2347)]. The descendants of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) include his wives and the descendants of Ali, Aqeel, Jaafer, Abbas and Haarith.
Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) told Mu’adh when he sent him to Yemen: “Let the people know that Muslims owe compulsory levy of Zakaat which will be taken from their rich and given to their poor.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol: 2, no: 478)]
Rich and healthy (able-bodied) person:
Abdullah Ibn Amr (radhi allahu anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) never approved of Zakaat being giving to a person well-off and with sound body. [(saheeh) Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee in Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhee (vol: 1, no: 527)]
The reason behind this prohibition is that these people are commanded by the Shari’ah to work and support themselves and not lie back and depend on others. Thus, any healthy person should not be given Zakaat unless he cannot find a job or he holds a job but the money is insufficient for him and his family needs, one may also provide him with the Zakaat to start his work.
Own parents, children or wife:
Amr Ibn Shoib transmits from his father and he from his grandfather (radhi allahu anhu) that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) and mentioned that he owned his wealth and children whereas his father had nothing. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) informed him: “You and all your wealth belong to your father.” [(saheeh) – Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee in saheeh Sunan Abo Dawood (vol: 2, no: 3051)] Thus, since it is obligatory on the son to spend for his parent’s welfare, he cannot give them Zakaat
Dear brother and sister in Faith,
Islam is the religion of equality
This is a month when Muslims across the world join in unity to perform prayers and fasting. No doubt you will agree that we must also unite to help all the poor and suffering throughout the world. Zakat Al-Maal is the third pillar of Islam and is a mandatory payment required of every Muslim who meets the requirements for paying it. It testifies to the genuineness of a Muslim’s faith.
In the Holy Qur’an, Allah (Subhanuhu Wa-Ta’ala) says,
“Those who establish prayers and spend from that
which we have bestowed upon them,
these are the true believers.
They will have [lofty] grades of honor with their Lord,
and forgiveness, and a generous provision.”
In addition to helping the weak and downtrodden, Zakat also serves to purify the soul and bless the wealth. It also strives to eliminate envy and greed as well as improve an individual’s social spirit, as the
Prophet (sall’Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said,
“Charity extinguishes sin as water extinguishes fire.”Ã‚Â
[Ahmed: Muadh 21116]
Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:
“Pay the Zakaat so that your Islam becomes complete.” [Al-Bazzar].
And Qur’an says:
“Give them something yourselves
out of the means which Allah has given you.”
[Soorah an-Noor (24): 33]
Bear in mind as well that thousands of needy people
have been waiting the whole year for this moment.
Your Zakat will truly make a difference.
Forward this message to as many people you can.
Guiding one soul to knowledge and faith
is a momentous achievement.
It is what will earn us great blessings.